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john iv of trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond was founded in 1204 by Alexius Comnenus grandson of Andronicus I. Empire of Trebizond - John IV Reigned: 1446 - 1458 A.D. Denomination: AR Asper Obverse: St. Eugenius seated on horse walking right. John IV was married twice, first to an unnamed daughter of King Alexander I of Georgia,[20] then prior to November 1437 he married the daughter of a Turkish sultan. John apparently failed to cooperate, and in 1456 the Sultan dispatched his governor of Amasya Hizir Bey to attack Trebizond by both land and sea. [2] As a result, his brother Alexander was designated despotes in his place. St. Eugenius on horseback right, holding cross / John on horseback right, holding three-pronged scepter. Sphranzes, ch. After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Trebizond and the Morea were left as the last remnants of the Byzantine imperial tradition. Chalkokondyles II.220; translated by Kaldellis, A. Vasiliev, "Tero Tafur, a Spanish Traveler of the XVth Century and His Visit to Constantinople, Trebizond, and Italy,". AR Asper (14mm, 0.64 g, 5h). [22] However, Kuršanskis has shown that John had only one child—Theodora Megale Komnene, better known by her Mongol appellation "Despina Hatun". Byzantine John IV, Trebizond. [19] In discussing this document, Thierre Ganchou explains that it confirms clearly a terminus ante quem for John's death of 22 April 1460. [7] According to the Europäische Stammtafeln, his second wife was the daughter of Dawlat Berdi Khan of the Golden Horde, although no basis for this identification is given. John II Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1262 ndash;August 16, 1297) Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1297. An alternative identification is that she was the daughter of the Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray.[21]. They learned they had misunderstood John's wishes: he had the eyes of one man put out and the hand of the other cut off.[6]. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article John IV of Trebizond was born in 1403. The disputes were never fully settled and seriously injured commerce in the Black Sea. Contribution à la prosopographie des Grands Comnènes", Profile of Alexios IV and his children in "Medieval Lands" by Charles Cawley, Vougiouklaki Penelope, "John IV Grand Komnenos", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_IV_of_Trebizond&oldid=940263179, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The first time this letter was printed was in 1496, taken from the text of Reg. John apparently failed to cooperate, and in 1456 the Sultan dispatched his governor of Amasya Hizir Bey to attack Trebizond by both land and sea. Pero Tafur provides a detail at variance with the account of Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, for he reports that John became emperor with help of the Turkish Sultan. 7, 18; DOC IV p. 433, 13b; Schlumberger pl. Reverse: John seated on horse walking right. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. Ganchou explains the discrepancies in the rest of the evidence facilely. Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of John II of Trebizond has received more than 36,714 page views. [15], John's hostile attitude towards Genoa was explained by one contemporary, the Spanish traveller Pero Tafur, as a fear of a potential Byzantine-Genoese alliance that could place his brother Alexander on the throne of Trebizond. [4], Landing at Saint Phokas (the modern Kordyle), John and his supporters made their base in the monastery. F. Alexios IV of Trebizond 1382 - 1429; M. Theodora Kantakouzene, wife of Alexios IV of Trebizond - 1426; Maria of Trebizond - 1439; John IV of Trebizond Abt 1403 - 1459; Alexander of Trebizond 1406 - 1460; David of Trebizond Abt 1408 - 1463; Spouse and Children . John had been designated despotes by his father as early as 1417, but did not see eye-to-eye with his parents. While in Georgia John married Bagrationi, a daughter of King Alexander I, but he could not obtain sufficient support to establish himself in Trebizond. Memorability Metrics. Noting that the letter appears between two other documents dated to 1459, Ganchou blames a "lazy scribe" for writing that year when transcribing this letter, instead of the correct 1460. This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. According to a passage considered to be an interpolation in the history of Laonikos Chalkokondyles, he accused his mother Theodora of having an affair with an unnamed protovestiarios, whom he killed, then held his parents captive in the citadel until the palace staff released them. [16], At some point in his reign, John was faced with an attack by the ruler of Ardabil, Shaykh Junayd, who marched upon Trebziond: proposed dates range from the 1430s (E. Janssens) through the 1440s (von Hammer, Finlay, and Miller) to 1456 (Shukurov) or 1456-58 (Bryer). Celebrity Births Deaths and Ages. [18] Beginning with Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, modern scholars have inferred it from two records: one was a letter from John's successor and brother, David of Trebizond, dated 22 April 1459, but because it was associated with the dubious embassy led by Ludovico da Bologna, and internal inconsistencies, this letter has been considered at the least a partial forgery; the other record was a damaged inscription Fallmerayer reported to have seen in the citadel Kule boylu ("high tower"), which was made by John and dated to the year 6968 (= A.D. 1 September 1459 – 31 August 1460); however this inscription was never seen by any other historian, despite determined efforts, and the citadel itself has since been destroyed. Constantinople mint. John IV of Trebizond died in 1459. His reign was dominated by ongoing attempts to defend Trebizond from its Turkmen neighbors and the increasingly aggressive Ottoman Empire to the west. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. Lat. The Metropolitan of Trebizond joined the Byzantine clergy at the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1438-1439). The disputes were never fully settled and seriously injured commerce in the Black Sea. Alexios (1455–1463), who was beheaded at Constantinople. Ask Login. John was recognized as emperor in Trebizond some time before 28 October 1429, the date of the first document that mentions him on the throne. Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. [23] The two doubtful children are: Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! John was recognized as emperor in Trebizond some time before 28 October 1429, the date of the first document that mentions him on the throne. [9] In February 1451 the Byzantine diplomat George Sphrantzes arrived in Trebizond seeking a bride for his emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos. John then fled to Georgia. Chalkokondyles II.219-220; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, For a discussion of this source, see Kaldellis, "The Interpolations", pp. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1403 ndash; 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459. In 1442 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II sent out a fleet to plunder the shores and to attempt to capture the city. Lat. This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. John IV of Trebizond. Sphranzes, ch. Cf. According to Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, John had instructed them to only bring his father to him, but the men thought John would be more grateful if they killed his father the Emperor, and did so. Lot also includes: John VIII Palaeologus, 1425-1448. This incident is notable for the anecdote it relates about John, who gleefully related to Sphrantzes the news of the death of Sultan Murad II, and that Mehmed II's youth meant that now his empire could last longer and be blessed. This expedition did not seriously affect Trebizond itself, but attacked Trebizond's dependencies in the Crimea and was partly destroyed by a storm on its return journey. [18] Beginning with Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, modern scholars have inferred it from two records: one was a letter from John's successor and brother, David of Trebizond, dated 22 April 1459, but because it was associated with the dubious embassy led by Ludovico da Bologna, and internal inconsistencies, this letter has been considered at the least a partial forgery; the other record was a damaged inscription Fallmerayer reported to have seen in the citadel Kule boylu ("high tower"), which was made by John and dated to the year 6968 (= A.D. 1 September 1459 – 31 August 1460); however this inscription was never seen by any other historian, despite determined efforts, and the citadel itself has since been destroyed. In 1442 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II sent out a fleet to plunder the shores and to attempt to capture the city. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. A Genoese document dated November 8, 1427 orders the consul at Caffa in the Crimea to keep on good terms with the Emperor of Trebizond for news of John arriving at Caffa had reached Genoa. An important family, the Kabasitai, offered to act as intermediaries; however, an interpolator of the History of Chalkokondyles, or Pseudo-Chalkokondyles,[5] states that they were John's "secret accomplices" for some of the Kabasitai had agreed to allow two of John's archontes into Emperor Alexios' tent, and once inside the archontes murdered Alexios around midnight. [7] According to the Europäische Stammtafeln, his second wife was the daughter of Dawlat Berdi Khan of the Golden Horde, although no basis for this identification is given. [3] Here he found a large vessel full of arms, and in exchange for appointing its owner his protostrator the vessel and its crew brought him home in 1429. 37k. tutto esatto qualsiasi . [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. The year "1459" in the letter carried by the embassy of Ludovico da Bologna was an error in transcription: the original letter has not been found, and may no longer exist. While in Georgia John married Bagrationi, a daughter of King Alexander I, but he could not obtain sufficient support to establish himself in Trebizond. John had planned to attack Junayd from both land and sea; however, a strong wind prevented the sailors from landing and the Sheikh's men successfully counteracted, killing the pansebastos and scattering the army. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1403 – 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459. Biography. John IV of Trebizond John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1403 – 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459. John IV went on to marry an unnamed Turkish lady. The penultimate Trapezuntine ruler, John IV, recognized the threat of the Ottomans. As early as 1434 he had responded to the letters of Pope Eugenius IV, in marked contrast to earlier emperors of Trebizond, who had ignored papal missives. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. The apprehensiveness towards Genoa was contrasted by friendlier relations with Venice, although the Venetians never recovered their former influence in the Black Sea. John IV married an unnamed Turkish lady as his second consort. [8] His brother Alexander was afterwards exiled to Constantinople, where the Spanish Ambassador Tafur met him eight years later. John IV began his reign by punishing the physical murderers of his father, then burying his father in state in the metropolitan cathedral. Although John owed his throne to a Genoese crew, he repeatedly failed to reimburse the Genoese for debts owed to them in 1431, and in 1441 refused to provide reparations for a Genoese ship ordered seized and looted six years earlier. [17] John assembled his land and naval forces, then assisted by his pansebastos sailed forth to meet the Shaikh. John II Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ἰωάννης Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1262 – 16 August 1297) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1297. This expedition did not seriously affect Trebizond itself, but attacked Trebizond's dependencies in the Crimea and was partly destroyed by a storm on its return journey. Kuršanskis has argued that Alexios was correctly the son of John's brother Alexander. Languages Editions (L) 5.92 . Alexios (1455–1463), who was beheaded at Constantinople. Giovanni IV di Trebisonda. The city was deserted due to plague and likely to fall; John made his submission and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 2,000 gold pieces in return for the return the captives Hizir had taken. [3] Here he found a large vessel full of arms, and in exchange for appointing its owner his protostrator the vessel and its crew brought him home in 1429. John I Axouchos (Greek: Ιωάννης Ἀξούχος, romanized: Iōannēs Axouchos) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1235 to 1238. The Europäische Stammtafeln considers this second wife to have been a daughter of Dawlat Berdi. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. (13mm, 0.50 g, 6h). Ganchou explains the discrepancies in the rest of the evidence facilely. Death . John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1403 – 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459.He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. [12], Aware of the Ottoman advance against the remaining Byzantine possessions in the Morea, John IV attempted to bolster his position by resorting to an old family tradition; the same year David delivered the tribute to Mehmed, John married his daughter Theodora to Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu. [17] John assembled his land and naval forces, then assisted by his pansebastos sailed forth to meet the Shaikh. Dawlat rivaled Olugh … A Genoese document dated November 8, 1427 orders the consul at Caffa in the Crimea to keep on good terms with the Emperor of Trebizond for news of John arriving at Caffa had reached Genoa. Historical Popularity Index (HPI) 22. Ióannész trapezunti császár; itwiki Giovanni IV di Trebisonda; jawiki ヨハネス4世 (トレビゾンド皇帝) kawiki იოანე IV (ტრაპიზონი) An important family, the Kabasitai, offered to act as intermediaries; however, an interpolator of the History of Chalkokondyles, or Pseudo-Chalkokondyles,[5] states that they were John's "secret accomplices" for some of the Kabasitai had agreed to allow two of John's archontes into Emperor Alexios' tent, and once inside the archontes murdered Alexios around midnight. Because this document shows that this news reached Caffa between 19 April and 5 May, and that Trebizond was not more than a two weeks' journey from Caffa, this strongly suggests John died in April 1460. John IV. Written in Caffa and dated 19 April 1460, this memorandum includes a postscript dated 5 May 1460, that states that John has died and was succeeded by his brother the despotes. John IV of Trebizond. [7] It may be both versions contain part of the truth: although John ascended to the throne on the murder of his father, it may be the Turkish Sultan provided John with financial or military support to return to Trebizond. An account by Caterino Zeno dated […] An account by Caterino Zeno dated to 1474 names Niccolò as married to Valenza Megali Komnene, a supposed sister of daughter of John IV of Trebizond. [23] The two doubtful children are: Emperor and Autocrat of all the East and Perateia, John Hutchins Rosser: Historical Dictionary of Byzantium page 259. In about 1426, Bagrationi married John IV of Trebizond. The two armies met at Kapanion. VF. Chalkokondyles II.219-220; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, For a discussion of this source, see Kaldellis, "The Interpolations", pp. [4], Landing at Saint Phokas (the modern Kordyle), John and his supporters made their base in the monastery. Ask Login. [12], Aware of the Ottoman advance against the remaining Byzantine possessions in the Morea, John IV attempted to bolster his position by resorting to an old family tradition; the same year David delivered the tribute to Mehmed, John married his daughter Theodora to Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu. On 11 February 2020, at 13:57 Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray. [ 21....: Historical Dictionary of Byzantium page 259 made it back to Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene almost forgot how original!, in his place about 1426, Bagrationi married John IV of Trebizond until the reign of Crimean! Despotes by his father as early as 1417, but did not make another attack on Empire... 1235 to 1238: Ιωάννης Ἀξούχος, romanized: Iōannēs Axouchos ) was Emperor of Trebizond the! Then assisted by his father as early as 1417, but did not make attack! Contemporary chronicler or historian recorded the actual date of John 's death its Turkmen neighbors and increasingly. 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[ 2 ] as a result, his conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned IV!

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